Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 AIRCREW : Pilot Licences
FCL.001 Competent authority - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011
For the purpose of this Part, the competent authority shall be an authority designated by the
State to whom a person applies for the issue of pilot licences or associated ratings or
FCL.005 Scope - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011
This Part establishes the requirements for the issue of pilot licences and associated ratings and
certificates and the conditions of their validity and use.
GM1 FCL.005 Scope - ED Decision 2020/005/R
- Whenever licences, ratings, approvals or certificates are mentioned in Part-FCL, these
meant to be valid licences, ratings, approvals or certificates issued in accordance with
Part-FCL. In all other cases, these documents are specified.
- Whenever a reference is made to Member States to mutual recognition of licences,
approvals or certificates, this means a European Union Member State and states
to the Agency in accordance with Article 55 of the Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 20 February 2008.
- Whenever an inclusive or exclusive ‘or’ is used, it should be understood within the
of the whole meaning of the requirement in which it is used.
FCL.010 Definitions - Regulation (EU) 2020/2193
Site de l'EASA
( Easy Access )
GM1 FCL.010 Definitions - ED Decision 2020/018/R
Site de l'EASA
( Easy Access )
GM2 FCL.010 Definitions – lateral and vertical navigation -
ED Decision 2016/008/R
Lateral and vertical navigation guidance refers to the guidance provided either by:
- a ground-based radio navigation aid; or
- computer-generated navigation data from ground-based, space-based, self-contained
aids or a combination of these.
GM3 FCL.010 Definitions - ED Decision 2019/005/R
UPSET PREVENTION AND RECOVERY TRAINING (UPRT) DEFINITIONS
In the context of UPRT, the following abbreviations apply to the Acceptable Means of
and Guidance Material to Part-FCL:
Site de l'EASA
( Easy Access )
GM4 FCL.010 Definitions - ED Decision 2019/005/R
DEFINITIONS IN GM3 FCL.010 RELATED TO THE POST-STALL REGIME
The definitions for ‘incipient spin’, 'developing spin’ and ‘developed spin’ in GM3 FCL.010
to the post-stall regime in aeroplanes that might typically be used in the context of the
UPRT in accordance with point FCL.745.A. The definitions are not intended for application to
commercial air transport operations.
GM5 FCL.010 Definitions - ED Decision 2020/005/R
AVAILABLE AND ACCESSIBLE FSTDs
- To determine the availability of an FSTD, the following additional criteria should be
taken into account. The FSTD should be:
- certified by a competent authority within the scope of the Basic Regulation;
- approved by the competent authority for use within the scope of the Basic
- representative of the operator’s or applicant’s aircraft class or type, and
- representative of the configuration of the operator’s or applicant’s aircraft.
- To determine the accessibility of an FSTD, the following additional criteria should be
taken into account. The FSTD should be:
- accessible to the instructor or examiner of the applicant;
- accessible for use within the scope of the candidate’s/operator’s training and
checking activities; and
- accessible to allow normal programming and prevent excessive scheduling
within the operator’s crew roster patterns.
- ‘irrespective of any time considerations’ means that the FSTD may be used at any time
during day or night.
- If an FSTD is not available or accessible, mitigating measures to ensure the required
of safety should be agreed with the competent authority before testing or checking the
in an aircraft.
FCL.015 Application and issue, revalidation and renewal of licences, ratings and
certificates - Regulation (EU) 2020/2193
- An application for the issue, revalidation or renewal of pilot licences and associated
and certificates as well as any amendment thereto shall be submitted to the competent
in a form and manner established by that authority. The application shall be accompanied by
that applicants comply with the requirements for the issue, revalidation or renewal of the
or certificate as well as associated ratings or endorsements established in this Annex
and in Annex IV (Part-MED).
- Unless otherwise specified in this Annex, any limitation or extension of the privileges
by a licence, rating or certificate shall be endorsed in the licence or certificate by the
- A person shall not hold at any time more than one licence per category of aircraft issued in
accordance with this Part.
- A licence holder shall submit applications in accordance with paragraph (a) to the competent
authority designated by the Member State in which his or her licence was issued in
with this Annex (Part-FCL), Annex III (Part-BFCL) to Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/395 or
with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976, as
- The holder of a licence that has been issued in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL) may
to the competent authority designated by another Member State for a change of competent
relating to all licences held, as specified in paragraph (d).
- For the issue of a licence, rating or certificate the applicant shall apply not later than 6
months after having succeeded at the skill test or assessment of competence.
- Training completed in aircraft or in FSTDs in accordance with Annex III (Part-ORO) to
Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 shall be taken into account for the experience and revalidation
requirements established in this Annex (Part-FCL).
AMC1 FCL.015 Application and issue of licences, ratings and
certificates - ED Decision 2011/016/R
APPLICATION AND REPORT FORMS
Common application and report forms can be found:
- For skill tests, proficiency checks for issue, revalidation or renewal of LAPL, BPL,
PPL, CPL and IR in AMC1 to Appendix 7.
- For training, skill tests or proficiency checks for ATPL, MPL and class and type
in AMC1 to Appendix 9.
- For assessments of competence for instructors, in AMC5 FCL.935.
GM1 FCL.015(a) Application and issue, revalidation and renewal of licences,
ratings and certificates - ED Decision 2018/011/R
The application for the addition of the remark on the automatic validation of licences under
licence item XIII can be submitted either when the pilot applies for the issue, revalidation
or renewal of the licence, or independently at any other time.
FCL.020 Student pilot - Regulation (EU) 2020/359
- A student pilot shall not fly solo unless authorised to do so and supervised by a flight
- Before his or her first solo flight, a student pilot shall be at least 16 years of age.
FCL.025 Theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of licences and
ratings - Regulation (EU) 2020/2193
- Responsibilities of the applicant
- Applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a
licence or rating under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent
- Applicants shall only take the theoretical knowledge examination when recommended by
declared training organisation (DTO) or the approved training organisation (ATO)
for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the
of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard.
- The recommendation by a DTO or an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant
failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this
of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO or the
on the needs of the applicant.
- Pass standards
- A pass in a theoretical knowledge examination paper will be awarded to an applicant
at least 75 % of the marks allocated to that paper. No penalty marking shall be
- Unless otherwise determined in this Part, an applicant has successfully completed
required theoretical knowledge examination for the appropriate pilot licence or
if he or she has passed all the required theoretical knowledge examination papers
a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant
attempted an examination.
- If an applicant for the ATPL theoretical knowledge examination, or for the issue of
commercial pilot licence (CPL), an instrument rating (IR) or an en route instrument
rating (EIR) has failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers
within four attempts, or has failed to pass all papers within either six sittings or
within the period mentioned in point (b)(2), he or she shall retake the complete set
theoretical knowledge examination papers.
- If applicants for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL), a private
licence (PPL), a sailplane pilot licence (SPL) or a balloon pilot licence (BPL) have
failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four
or have failed to pass all papers within the period mentioned in point (b)(2), they
retake the complete set of theoretical knowledge examination papers.
- Before retaking the theoretical knowledge examinations, applicants shall undertake
training at a DTO or an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be
by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicants.
- Validity period
- The successful completion of the theoretical knowledge examinations will be valid:
- for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence or a private pilot licence,
period of 24 months;
- for the issue of a commercial pilot licence, instrument rating (IR) or en
instrument rating (EIR), for a period of 36 months;
- the periods in (i) and (ii) shall be counted from the day when the pilot
completes the theoretical knowledge examination, in accordance with (b)(2).
Les périodes indiquées aux points i) et ii) débuteront à partir du jour où les
pilotes auront réussi
l’examen théorique, conformément au point b) 2).
- The completion of the airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) theoretical knowledge
will remain valid for the issue of an ATPL for a period of 7 years from the last
validity date of:
- an IR entered in the licence; or
- in the case of helicopters, a helicopter’s type rating entered in that
GM1 FCL.025 Theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of licences -
ED Decision 2020/005/R
The meaning of the following terms used in FCL.025 should be as follows:
- ‘Entire set of examinations’: an examination in all subjects required by the licence
- ‘Examination’: the demonstration of knowledge in one or more examination papers.
- ‘Examination paper’: a set of questions, which covers one subject required by the
level or rating, to be answered by a candidate for examination.
- ‘Attempt’: a try to pass a specific paper.
- ‘Sitting’: a period of time established by the competent authority within which a
can take an examination. This period should not exceed 10 consecutive days. Only one
at each examination paper is allowed in one sitting.
AMC1 FCL.025(a)(2) Theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of licences
and ratings - ED Decision 2018/001/R
COMPLETION OF THE AREA 100 KSA ASSESSMENT BEFORE FINAL EXAMINATION
Before being recommended by an ATO to sit the final examination paper at the first attempt,
an applicant for a professional licence should have successfully completed the applicable
Area 100 KSA summative assessments and mental maths test at the ATO.
FCL.030 Practical skill test - Regulation (EU) No 2020/359
- Before a skill test for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate is taken, the
applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination, except in the
case of applicants undergoing a course of integrated flying training.
In any case, the theoretical knowledge instruction shall always have been completed
skill tests are taken.
- Except for the issue of an airline transport pilot licence, the applicant for a skill test
shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training,
once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the
- For the issue of a BIR, the applicant for a skill test must first complete all training
modules and be recommended for the skill test by an ATO. His or her training records shall
be made available to the examiner, by the ATO.
FCL.035 Crediting of flight time and theoretical knowledge - Regulation (EU)
- Crediting of flight time
- Unless otherwise specified in this Part, flight time to be credited for a licence,
or certificate shall have been flown in the same category of aircraft for which the
rating or certificate is sought.
- PIC or under instruction.
- An applicant for a licence, rating or certificate shall be credited in full
solo, dual instruction or PIC flight time towards the total flight time
the licence, rating or certificate.
- A graduate of an ATP integrated training course is entitled to be credited
to 50 hours of student pilot-in-command instrument time towards the PIC time
for the issue of the airline transport pilot licence, commercial pilot
licence and a
multi-engine type or class rating.
- A graduate of a CPL/IR integrated training course is entitled to be credited
to 50 hours of the student pilot-in-command instrument time towards the PIC
for the issue of the commercial pilot licence and a multi-engine type or
- Flight time as co-pilot or PICUS. Unless otherwise determined in this Part, the
a pilot licence, when acting as co-pilot or PICUS, is entitled to be credited with
the co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a higher grade of pilot
- All hours flown in aeroplanes or TMGs that are subject to a decision of a Member
State taken in accordance with points (a) or (c) of Article 2(8) of Regulation (EU)
2018/1139 or that fall within the scope of Annex I to that Regulation shall be
credited in full towards fulfilling the flight time requirements of point
FCL.140.A(a)(1) and point FCL.740.A(b)(1)(ii) of this Annex, provided that the
following conditions are met:
- the aeroplane or TMG concerned is of the same category and class as the
Part-FCL aircraft in respect of which the hours flown are to be credited;
- in case of training flights with an instructor, the aeroplane or TMG used is
subject to an authorisation specified in point ORA.ATO.135 of Annex VII
(Part-ORA) or point DTO.GEN.240 of Annex VIII (Part-DTO).’;
- Crediting of theoretical knowledge
- Applicants that have passed the theoretical knowledge examination for an airline
transport pilot licence shall be credited towards the requirements for the
theoretical knowledge for the light aircraft pilot licence, the private pilot
licence, the commercial pilot licence and, except in the case of helicopters, the IR
and the BIR in the same category of aircraft.
- Applicants that have passed the theoretical knowledge examination for a commercial
pilot licence shall be credited towards the requirements for the theoretical
- the light aircraft pilot licence in the same category of aircraft;
- the private pilot licence in the same category of aircraft; and
- the subject ‘communications’ for the BIR. This credit shall include the IFR
part of the subject ‘communications’ only if that subject was completed in
accordance with point FCL.310, as applicable as of 20 December 2019.
- Holders of an IR or applicants that have passed the IR theoretical knowledge
examination for a category of aircraft shall be credited towards the requirements
for the theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for:
- the IR in another category of aircraft; an
- the BIR.
- Holders of a pilot licence shall be credited towards the requirements for
theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for a licence in another category
of aircraft in accordance with Appendix 1 to this Part. This credit also applies to
applicants for a pilot licence who have already successfully completed the
theoretical knowledge examinations for the issue of that licence in another category
of aircraft, as long as the theoretical knowledge examination is within the validity
period specified in point FCL.025(c).
- By way of derogation from paragraph (b)(3), holders of an IR(A) who have completed a
competency-based modular IR(A) course shall be fully credited towards the
requirements for theoretical knowledge instruction and examination for an IR in
another category of aircraft only if they have also passed the theoretical knowledge
instruction and examination for the IFR part of the course required in accordance
with point FCL.720.A.(a)(2)(ii)(A)
FCL.040 Exercise of the privileges of licences - Regulation (EU)
The exercise of the privileges granted by a licence shall be dependent upon the validity of the
ratings contained therein, if applicable, and of the medical certificate as appropriate to the
FCL.045 Obligation to carry and present documents - Regulation (EU)
- A valid licence and a valid medical certificate shall always be carried by the pilot when
exercising the privileges of the licence.
- The pilot shall also carry a personal identification document containing his/her photo.
- A pilot or a student pilot shall without undue delay present his/her flight time record for
inspection upon request by an authorised representative of a competent authority.
- A student pilot shall carry on all solo cross-country flights evidence of the authorisation
required by FCL.020(a).
- A pilot intending to fly outside Union territory on an aircraft registered in a Member State
other than the one that issued the flight crew licence shall carry, in print or in
format, the latest issue of the ICAO attachment, which includes a reference to the ICAO
registration number of the agreement that recognises the automatic validation of licences,
as well as the list of States which are party to this agreement.
FCL.050 Recording of flight time - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011
The pilot shall keep a reliable record of the details of all flights flown in a form and manner
established by the competent authority.
AMC1 FCL.050 Recording of flight time - ED Decision 2020/005/R
- The record of the flights flown should contain at least the following information:
- personal details: name(s) and address of the pilot;
- for each flight:
- name(s) of PIC;
- date of flight;
- place and time of departure and arrival;
- type, including make, model and variant, and registration of the
- indication if the aircraft is SE or ME, if applicable;
- total time of flight;
- accumulated total time of flight.
- for each FSTD session, if applicable:
- type and qualification number of the training device;
- FSTD instruction;
- total time of session;
- accumulated total time.
- details on pilot function, namely PIC, including solo, SPIC and PICUS time,
dual, FI or FE;
- Operational conditions, namely if the operation takes place at night, or is
under instrument flight rules.
- Logging of time:
- Temps de vol en tant que CDB :
- the holder of a licence may log as PIC time all of the flight time
he or she is the PIC;
- the applicant for or the holder of a pilot licence may log as PIC time
flight time, flight time as SPIC and flight time under supervision
such SPIC time and flight time under supervision are countersigned by
- the holder of an instructor certificate may log as PIC all flight time
which he or she acts as an instructor in an aircraft;
- the holder of an examiner’s certificate may log as PIC all flight time
which he or she occupies a pilot’s seat and acts as an examiner in an
- a co-pilot acting as PICUS on an aircraft on which more than one pilot
under the type certification of the aircraft or as required by
provided that such PICUS time is countersigned by the PIC;
- if the holder of a licence carries out a number of flights upon the same
returning on each occasion to the same place of departure and the
between successive flights does not exceed 30 minutes, such series of
may be recorded as a single entry.
- co-pilot flight time: the holder of a pilot licence occupying a pilot seat as
may log all flight time as co-pilot flight time on an aircraft on which more
pilot is required under the type certification of the aircraft, or the
under which the flight is conducted;
- cruise relief co-pilot flight time: a cruise relief co-pilot may log all flight
as co-pilot when occupying a pilot’s seat;
- instruction time: a summary of all time logged by an applicant for a licence or
as flight instruction, instrument flight instruction, instrument ground time,
may be logged if certified by the appropriately rated or authorised instructor
whom it was received;
- PICUS flight time: provided that the method of supervision is acceptable to the
competent authority, a co-pilot may log as PIC flight time flown as PICUS when
the duties and functions of PIC on that flight were carried out in such a way
the intervention of the PIC in the interest of safety was not required.
- Format of the record:
- details of flights flown under commercial air transport may be recorded in an
electronic format maintained by the operator.
In this case an operator should make the records of all flights operated by
including differences and familiarisation training, available upon request
to the flight
crew member concerned.
- for other types of flights in aeroplanes, helicopters and powered-lift aircraft,
should record the details of the flights flown in the following logbook format,
be kept in electronic format. All data set out in (a) should be included.
- For sailplanes, balloons and airships, a suitable format, which may be
should be used. That format should contains the relevant items mentioned in (a)
additional information specific to the type of operation.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
- FCL.050 requires holders of a pilot licence to record details of all flights flown. This
logbook enables pilot licence holders to record flying experience in a manner which will
facilitate this process while providing a permanent record of the licence holders
Pilots who fly regularly aeroplanes and helicopters or other aircraft categories are
recommended to maintain separate logbooks for each aircraft category.
- Flight crew logbook entries should be made as soon as practicable after any flight
All entries in the flight crew logbook should comply with the following :
- in case of paper records, they should be made in ink or indelible pencil, or
- in case of electronic records, they should be made and kept in a way to be
available at the request of a competent authority, and contain all relevant
items that are
mentioned in (a), certified by the pilot, and in a format acceptable by the
- The particulars of every flight in the course of which the holder of a flight crew
acts as a member of the operating crew of an aircraft are to be recorded in the
columns using one line for each flight, provided that if an aircraft carries out a
of flights upon the same day returning on each occasion to the same place of departure
the interval between successive flights does not exceed 30 minutes, such series of
may be recorded as a single entry.
- Flight time is recorded:
- for aeroplanes, touring motor gliders and powered-lift aircraft, from the moment
aircraft first moves to taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at
end of the flight;
- for helicopters, from the moment a helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until
moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the
blades are stopped;
- for airships, from the moment an airship is released from the mast to taking off
the moment the airship finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and is
on the mast;
- When an aircraft carries two or more pilots as members of the operating crew, one of
shall, before the flight commences, be designated by the operator as the aircraft PIC,
according to operational requirements, who may delegate the conduct of the flight to
another suitably qualified pilot. All flying carried out as PIC is entered in the
as ‘PIC’. A pilot flying as ‘PICUS’ or ‘SPIC’ enters flying time as ‘PIC’ but all such
entries are to be certified by the PIC or FI in the ‘Remarks’ column of the logbook.
- Notes on recording of flight time:
- column 1: enter the date (dd/mm/yy) on which the flight commences;
- column 2 or 3: enter the place of departure and destination either in full or
internationally recognised three or four letter designator. All times should be
- column 5: indicate whether the operation was SP or MP, and for SP operation
SE or ME;
- column 6: total time of flight may be entered in hours and minutes or decimal
notation as desired;
- column 7: enter the name(s) of PIC or SELF as appropriate;
- column 8: indicate the number of landings as pilot flying by day or night;
- column 9: enter flight time undertaken at night or under instrument flight rules
- column 10: pilot function time:
- enter flight time as PIC, SPIC and PICUS as PIC;
- all time recorded as SPIC or PICUS is countersigned by the aircraft
PIC/FI in the ‘remarks’ (column 12);
- instructor time should be recorded as appropriate and also entered as
- column 11: FSTD:
- for any FSTD enter the type of aircraft and qualification number of the
For other flight training devices enter either FNPT I or FNPT II as
- total time of session includes all exercises carried out in the device,
pre- and after-flight checks;l
- enter the type of exercise performed in the ‘remarks’ (column 12), for
operator proficiency check, revalidation.
- column 12: the ‘remarks’ column may be used to record details of the flight at
holder’s discretion. The following entries, however, should always be made:
- instrument flight time undertaken as part of the training for a licence
- details of all skill tests and proficiency checks;
- signature of PIC if the pilot is recording flight time as SPIC or
- signature of instructor if flight is part of an SEP or TMG class rating
- When each page is completed, accumulated flight time or hours should be entered in the
appropriate columns and certified by the pilot in the ‘remarks’ column.
FCL.055 Language proficiency - Regulation (EU) 2020/359
- General. Aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio
telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have
a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used
for radio communications involved in the flight. The endorsement shall indicate the
the proficiency level and the validity date, and it shall be obtained in accordance with a
procedure established by a competent authority. The minimum acceptable proficiency level is
the operational level (Level 4) in accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex.
- The applicant for a language proficiency endorsement shall demonstrate, in accordance with
Appendix 2 to this Annex, at least an operational level of language proficiency both in the
use of phraseologies and plain language to an assessor certified by a competent authority or
a language-testing body approved by a competent authority as applicable. To do so, the
shall demonstrate the ability to:
- communicate effectively in voice-only and in face-to-face situations;
- communicate on common and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity;
- use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognise and
misunderstandings in a general or work-related context;
- handle successfully the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or
turn of events which occurs within the context of a routine work situation or
task with which they are otherwise familiar; and
- use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.
- Except for pilots who have demonstrated language proficiency at an expert level (level 6) in
accordance with Appendix 2 to this Annex, the language proficiency endorsement shall be
- 4 years, if the level demonstrated is operational level (level 4); or
- 6 years, if the level demonstrated is extended level (level 5).
- Specific requirements for holders of an instrument rating (IR). By way of derogation from
the paragraphs above, holders of an IR shall have demonstrated the ability to use the
language at the appropriate proficiency level as defined in Appendix 2 to this Annex.
- The demonstration of language proficiency and the use of the English language for IR holders
shall be done through a method of assessment established by any competent authority.
AMC1 FCL.055 Language proficiency - ED Decision 2020/005/R
- The method of assessment of the language proficiency level (hereafter: assessment)
be designed to reflect a range of tasks undertaken by pilots but with specific focus on
language rather than operational procedures.
- The assessment should determine the applicant’s ability to:
- communicate effectively using standard R/T phraseology;
- deliver and understand messages in plain language in both usual and unusual
that necessitate departure from standard R/T phraseology.
Note: refer to the ‘Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements’
(ICAO Doc 9835), Appendix A Part III and Appendix B for further guidance.
- The assessment may be subdivided into three elements, as follows:
- listening: assessment of comprehension;
- speaking: assessment of pronunciation, fluency, structure and vocabulary;
- The three elements mentioned above may be combined and they can be covered by using a
variety of means or technologies.
- Where appropriate, some or all of these elements may be achieved through the use of the
R/T testing arrangements.
- When the elements of the testing are assessed separately, the final assessment should be
consolidated in the language proficiency endorsement issued by the competent authority.
- The assessment may be conducted during one of the several existing checking or training
activities, such as licence issue or rating issue and revalidation, line training,
line checks or proficiency checks.
- The competent authority may use its own resources in developing or conducting the
proficiency assessment, or may delegate this task to language testing bodies.
- The competent authority should establish an appeal procedure for applicants.
- The holder of a licence should receive a statement containing the level and validity of
the language endorsements.
- Where the assessment method for the English language established by the competent
is equivalent to that established for the assessment of use of the English language in
accordance with AMC2 FCL.055, the same assessment may be used for both purposes.
BASIC ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS
- The aim of the assessment is to determine the ability of an applicant for a pilot
or a licence holder to speak and understand the language used for R/T communications.
- The assessment should determine the ability of the applicant to use both:
- standard R/T phraseology;
- plain language, in situations when standardised phraseology cannot serve
an intended transmission.
- The assessment should include:
- voice-only and face-to-face situations;
- common, concrete and work-related topics for pilots.
- The applicants should demonstrate their linguistic ability in dealing with an
turn of events, and in solving apparent misunderstandings.
- The assessment should determine the applicant’s speaking and listening
Indirect assessments, of grammatical knowledge, reading and writing, are not
- The assessment should determine the language skills of the applicant in the
- the extent to which the pronunciation, stress, rhythm and
influenced by the applicant’s first language or national
- how much they interfere with ease of understanding.
- the ability of the applicant to use both basic and complex
- the extent to which the applicant’s errors interfere with the
- the range and accuracy of the vocabulary used;
- the ability of the applicant to paraphrase successfully when
- rehearsed versus spontaneous speech;
- use of discourse markers and connectors.
- on common, concrete and work-related topics;
- when confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or
an unexpected turn of events.
Note: the accent or variety of accents used in the test material
should be sufficiently intelligible for an international
community of users.
- quality of response (immediate, appropriate, and informative);
- the ability to initiate and maintain exchanges:
- on common, concrete and work-related topics;
- when dealing with an unexpected turn of events.
- the ability to deal with apparent misunderstandings by checking,
confirming or clarifying.
Note: the assessment of the language skills in the areas
mentioned above is
conducted using the rating scale in AMC2 FCL.055.
- It is essential that the persons responsible for language proficiency assessment
are suitably trained and qualified. They should be either aviation specialists (for
current or former flight crew members or air traffic controllers), or language
with additional aviation related training. An alternative approach would be to form an
assessment team consisting of an operational expert and a language expert.
- The assessors should be trained on the specific requirements of the
- The assessors should not test applicants to whom they have given language
CRITERIA FOR THE ACCEPTABILITY OF LANGUAGE-TESTING BODIES
- To ensure an impartial assessment process, the language assessment should be independent
of the language training.
- To be accepted, the language-testing bodies should demonstrate:
- appropriate management and staffing;
- quality system established and maintained to ensure compliance with, and
of, assessment requirements, standards and procedures.
- The quality system established by a language-testing body should address the
- policy and strategy;
- the relevant provisions of ICAO or Part-FCL, standards and assessment
- organisational structure;
- responsibility for the development, establishment and management of the
- quality assurance programme;
- human resources and training (initial and recurrent);
- assessment requirements;
- customer satisfaction.
- The assessment documentation and records should be kept for a period of time
by the competent authority and made available to this competent authority, on
- The assessment documentation should include at least the following:
- assessment objectives;
- assessment layout, time scale, technologies used, assessment samples,
- assessment criteria and standards (at least for the levels 4, 5 and 6 of
rating scale mentioned in AMC2 FCL.055);
- documentation demonstrating the assessment validity, relevance and
- assessment procedures and responsibilities:
- preparation of individual assessment;
- administration: location(s), identity check and invigilation,
discipline, confidentiality or security;
- reporting and documentation provided to the competent authority
or to the
applicant, including sample certificate;
- retention of documents and records.
Note: refer to the ‘Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language
Requirements’ (ICAO Doc 9835) for further guidance.
AMC2 FCL.055 Language proficiency - ED Decision 2011/016/R
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AMC3 FCL.055 Language proficiency - ED Decision 2011/016/R
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR HOLDERS OF AN IR
USE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
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FCL.060 Recent experience - Regulation (EU) 2020/359
- Aeroplanes, helicopters, powered-lift aircraft and airships. A pilot shall not operate an
aircraft in commercial air transport or to carry passengers:
- as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least
take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an
representing that type or class. The 3 take-offs and landings shall be performed in
either multi-pilot or single-pilot operations, depending on the privileges held by
- as PIC at night unless he/she:
- has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and
at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an
representing that type or class; or
- holds an IR;
- as cruise relief co-pilot unless he/she:
- has complied with the requirements in (b)(1); or
- has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 3 sectors as a cruise
on the same type or class of aircraft; or
- has carried out recency and refresher flying skill training in an FFS at
not exceeding 90 days. This refresher training may be combined with the
refresher training prescribed in the relevant requirements of Part-ORO.
- When a pilot has the privilege to operate more than one type of aeroplane with
handling and operation characteristics, the 3 take-offs, approaches and landings
in (1) may be performed as defined in the operational suitability data established
accordance with Part-21.
- When a pilot has the privilege to operate more than one type of non-complex
with similar handling and operation characteristics, as defined in the operational
suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, the 3 take-offs, approaches
landings required in (1) may be performed in just one of the types, provided that
has completed at least 2 hours of flight in each of the types of helicopter, during
preceding 6 months.
- Specific requirements for commercial air transport:
- In the case of commercial air transport, the 90-day period prescribed in
subparagraphs (b)(1) and (2) above may be extended up to a maximum of 120 days, as
long as the pilot undertakes line flying under the supervision of a type rating
instructor or examiner.
- If the pilot does not comply with the requirement in point (1), he or she shall
complete a training flight with an instructor qualified in accordance with Subpart J
to instruct for that aircraft type. The training flight shall be performed in the
aircraft or an FFS of the aircraft type to be used, and shall include at least the
requirements described in points (b)(1) and (2) before he or she can exercise
AMC1 FCL.060(b)(1) Recent experience - ED Decision 2011/016/R
When a pilot needs to carry out one or more flights with an instructor or an examiner to
with the requirement of FCL.060(b)(1) before the pilot can carry passengers, the instructor
or examiner on board those flights will not be considered as a passenger.
GM1 FCL.060(b)(1) Recent experience - ED Decision 2011/016/R
AEROPLANES, HELICOPTERS, POWERED-LIFT, AIRSHIPS AND SAILPLANES
If a pilot or a PIC is operating under the supervision of an instructor to comply with the
required three take-offs, approaches and landings, no passengers may be on board.
AMC1 FCL.060(b)(5) Recent experience - ED Decision 2011/016/R
Grouping of non-complex helicopters with similar handling and operational
- Group 1: Bell 206/206L, Bell 407;
- Group 2: Hughes 369, MD 500N, MD 520N, MD 600;
- Group 3: SA 341/342, EC 120;
- Group 4: SA 313/318, SA 315/316/319, AS 350, EC 130;
- Group 5: all types listed in AMC1 FCL.740.H(a)(3) and R 22 and R 44.
FCL.065 Curtailment of privileges of licence holders aged 60 years or more in
transport - Regulation (EU) 2020/359
- Age 60-64. Aeroplanes and helicopters. The holder of a pilot licence who has attained the
age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport
except as a member of a multi-pilot crew.
- Age 65. Holders of a pilot licence who has attained the age of 65 years shall not act as a
pilot of an aircraft that is engaged in commercial air transport.
FCL.070 Revocation, suspension and limitation of licences, ratings and
certificates - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011
- Licences, ratings and certificates issued in accordance with this Part may be limited,
or revoked by the competent authority when the pilot does not comply with the requirements
this Part, Part-Medical or the applicable operational requirements, in accordance with the
conditions and procedures laid down in Part-ARA.
- When the pilot has his/her licence suspended or revoked, he/she shall immediately return the
licence or certificate to the competent authority.