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AIRCREW - Licences de Pilote et Certifications Diverses

Règlement Européen n° 1178/2011 AIRCREW : Licences de Pilote et Certifications Diverses
Consolidé au 08/04/2020

Annexe I : [PART FCL] - Flight Crew Licencing

Sous-partie H : Qualifications de Classe et de Type

SECTION 1 – COMMON REQUIREMENTS

FCL.700 Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required - Regulation (EU) 2020/359

  1. Holders of a pilot licence shall act as pilots of an aircraft only if they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, unless any of the following applies:
    1. if exercising the privileges of an LAPL;
    2. if they take skill tests or proficiency checks for renewal of class or type ratings;
    3. if they receive flight instruction;
    4. if they hold a flight test rating issued in accordance with point FCL.820.
  2. Notwithstanding (a), in the case of flights related to the introduction or modification of aircraft types, pilots may hold a special certificate given by the competent authority, authorising them to perform the flights. This authorisation shall have its validity limited to the specific flights.

AMC1 FCL.700 Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required - ED Decision 2020/005/R

  1. A class or type rating and license endorsement should comply with the class and type ratings that are listed in one of the following EASA publications, as applicable:
    1. ‘List of Aeroplanes — Class and Type Ratings and Endorsement List’; and
    2. ‘List of Helicopters — Type Ratings List’.
  2. Holders of Part-FCL licences should complete differences training or familiarisation training in accordance with the lists of point (a).

GM1 FCL.700 Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required - ED Decision 2011/016/R

LIST OF CLASS OR TYPE RATINGS

The following tables contain lists of aeroplanes or TMG that are included in class ratings.

  1. Class ratings (aeroplane): SP and SEP or MEP aeroplane (land or sea):
  2. Aeroplanes Licence Endorsement
    SEP (land) (D) SEP (land)
    SEP (land) with variable pitch propellers (VP)
    SEP (land) with retractable undercarriage (RU)
    SEP (land) with turbo or super charged engines (T)
    SEP (land) with cabin pressurisation (P)
    SEP (land) with tail wheels (TW)
    SEP (land) with EFIS (EFIS)
    SEP (land) with SLPC (SLPC)
    SEP (sea) (D) SEP (sea)
    SEP (sea) with variable pitch propellers (VP)
    SEP (sea) with turbo or super charged engines (T)
    SEP (sea) with cabin pressurisation (P)
    SEP (sea) with EFIS (EFIS)
    SEP (sea) with SLPC (SLPC)
    MEP (land) (D) MEP (land)
    MEP (sea) (D) MEP (sea)
  3. Class ratings (aeroplane): SP (Single Pilot) and SEP TMG (land):
  4. Aeroplanes Licence Endorsement
    All TMGs having an integrally mounted, non-retractable engine and a non-retractable propeller TMG
  5. Additional class and type rating lists and endorsement lists are published by the Agency.
  6. Whenever (D) is indicated in one of the lists mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c), it indicates that differences training in accordance with FCL.710 is required.

FCL.705 Privileges of the holder of a class or type rating - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

The privileges of the holder of a class or type rating are to act as pilot on the class or type of aircraft specified in the rating.

FCL.710 Class and type ratings – variants - Regulation (EU) 2019/1747

  1. Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating. In the case of variants within a class or type rating, the differences training or familiarisation shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, where applicable.
  2. The differences training shall be conducted at any of the following:
    1. an ATO;
    2. a DTO in the case of aircraft referred to in points (a)(1)(c) and (a)(2)(c) of point DTO.GEN.110 of Annex VIII;
    3. an AOC holder having an approved differences training programme for the relevant class or type.
  3. Notwithstanding the requirement in point (b), differences training for TMG, single-engine piston (SEP), single- engine turbine (SET) and multi-engine piston (MEP) aeroplanes may be conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor unless otherwise provided in the OSD.
  4. If pilots have not flown the variant within 2 years following the training listed in point (b), a further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be completed, except for types or variants within the SEP and TMG class ratings.
  5. The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.

GM1 FCL.710 Class and type ratings – variants - ED Decision 2011/016/R

DIFFERENCES AND FAMILIARISATION TRAINING

  1. Differences training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or the aircraft.
  2. Familiarisation training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge.

FCL.725 Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings - Regulation (EU) 2020/359

  1. Training course. An applicant for a class or type rating shall complete a training course at an ATO. An applicant for a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII (Part-DTO) may complete the training course at a DTO. The type rating training course shall include the mandatory training elements for the relevant type as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
  2. Theoretical knowledge examination. The applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a theoretical knowledge examination organised by the ATO to demonstrate the level of theoretical knowledge required for the safe operation of the applicable aircraft class or type.
    1. For multi-pilot aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the main subjects of the syllabus.
    2. For single-pilot multi-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and the number of multiple-choice questions shall depend on the complexity of the aircraft.
    3. For single-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the examiner during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved.
    4. For single-pilot aeroplanes that are classified as high performance aeroplanes, the examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the subjects of the syllabus.
    5. For single-pilot single-engine and single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes (sea), the examination shall be in a written form and shall comprise at least 30 multiple-choice questions.
  3. Skill test. An applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the skill required for the safe operation of the applicable class or type of aircraft.
  4. The applicant shall pass the skill test within a period of 6 months after commencement of the class or type rating training course and within a period of 6 months preceding the application for the issue of the class or type rating.

  5. An applicant who already holds a type rating for an aircraft type, with the privilege for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, shall be considered to have already fulfilled the theoretical requirements when applying to add the privilege for the other form of operation on the same aircraft type. Such an applicant shall complete additional flight training for the other form of operation at an ATO or an AOC holder specifically authorised for such training by the competent authority. The form of operation shall be entered in the licence.
  6. Notwithstanding the paragraphs above, pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820 who were involved in development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type, and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC on test flights in that type, shall be entitled to apply for the issue of the relevant type rating, provided that they comply with the experience requirements and the prerequisites for the issue of that type rating, as established in this Subpart for the relevant aircraft category.
  7. Applicants for a class rating for TMGs who also hold an SPL in accordance with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976, including the privileges to fly on TMGs, shall receive full credits towards the requirements in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).

AMC1 FCL.725(a) Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings - ED Decision 2020/005/R

SYLLABUS OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR CLASS OR TYPE RATINGS

Voir règlement.

AMC2 FCL.725(a) Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings - ED Decision 2011/016/R

TRAINING COURSE

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION FOR TYPE RATINGS: HELICOPTERS

FCL.740 Validity and renewal of class and type ratings - Regulation (EU) 2020/2193

  1. Validity
    1. The validity period of class and type ratings shall be 1 year, except for single-pilot single-engine class ratings for which the validity period shall be 2 years, unless otherwise determined in the OSD. If pilots choose to fulfil the revalidation requirements earlier than prescribed in points FCL.740.A, FCL.740.H, FCL.740.PL and FCL.740.As, the new validity period shall commence from the date of the proficiency check.
    2. Applicants for the revalidation of a class or type rating shall receive full credits for the proficiency check as required in this Subpart when they complete EBT practical assessment in accordance with Appendix 10 at an operator that has implemented EBT for the relevant class or type rating.
  2. Renewal
  3. For the renewal of a class or type rating, applicants shall comply with all of the following:

    1. in order to determine whether refresher training is necessary for the applicant to reach the level of proficiency to safely operate the aircraft, they shall undergo an assessment at one of the following:
      1. at an ATO;
      2. at a DTO or at an ATO, if the expired rating concerned a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII;
      3. at a DTO, at an ATO or with an instructor, if the rating expired no more than 3 years ago and the rating concerned a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating or a TMG class rating;
      4. at an EBT operator that is specifically approved for such refresher training;
    2. if deemed necessary by the organisation or the instructor providing the assessment as per point (1), they shall complete refresher training at that organisation or with that instructor;
    3. after complying with point (1) and, as applicable, point (2), they shall pass a proficiency check in accordance with Appendix 9 or complete EBT practical assessment in accordance with Appendix 10. That EBT practical assessment may be combined with the refresher training specified in point (2).
    4. By way of derogation from points (b)(1), (b)(2) and (b)(3), pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with point FCL.820 who were involved in the development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC in test flights in that type during the year prior to the date of their application, shall be entitled to apply for the revalidation or renewal of the relevant type rating.

      Applicants shall be exempted from the requirement in points (b)(1) and (b)(2) if they hold a valid rating for the same class or type of aircraft on a pilot licence issued by a third country in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention and if they are entitled to exercise the privileges of that rating.

  4. Pilots who leave an operator’s EBT programme after having failed to demonstrate an acceptable level of competence in accordance with that EBT programme shall not exercise the privileges of that type rating until they have complied with one of the following:
    1. they have completed EBT practical assessment in accordance with Appendix 10;
    2. they have passed a proficiency check in accordance with point FCL.625(c)(3) or point FCL.740(b)(3), as applicable. In such a case, point FCL.625(b)(4) and point FCL.740(a)(2) shall not apply.’;

AMC1 FCL.740(b) Validity and renewal of class and type ratings - ED Decision 2018/009/R

RENEWAL OF CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS: REFRESHER TRAINING AT AN ATO, A DTO OR WITH AN INSTRUCTOR

  1. The objective of the refresher training is for the applicant to reach the level of proficiency necessary to safely operate the relevant type or class of aircraft. The amount of refresher training needed should be determined on a case-by-case basis by the ATO, the DTO or the instructor, as applicable, taking into account the following factors:
    1. the experience of the applicant;
    2. the amount of time elapsed since the privileges of the rating were last used;
    3. the complexity of the aircraft;
    4. whether the applicant has a current rating on another aircraft type or class; and
    5. where considered necessary, the performance of the applicant during a simulated proficiency check for the rating in an FSTD or an aircraft of the relevant type or class.
    6. It should be expected that the amount of training needed to reach the desired level of proficiency will increase analogously to the time elapsed since the privileges of the rating were last used.

  2. After having determined the needs of the applicant, the ATO, the DTO or the instructor, as applicable, should develop an individual training programme based on the initial training for the rating, focusing on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.
  3. With the exception of refresher training for ratings for aircraft referred to in point FCL.740(b)(2)(i), refresher training should include theoretical knowledge instruction, as necessary, such as for type-specific system failures in complex aircraft. The performance of the applicant should be reviewed during the training and additional instruction should be provided to the applicant, where necessary, to reach the standard required for the proficiency check.
  4. After successful completion of the training, the ATO, the DTO or the instructor, as applicable, should issue the applicant with a training completion certificate or another document specified by the competent authority, describing the evaluation of the factors listed in (a), the training received, and a statement that the training has been successfully completed. The training completion certificate should be presented to the examiner prior to the proficiency check. Following the successful renewal of the rating, the training completion certificate or the other document specified by the competent authority and the examiner report form should be submitted to the competent authority.
  5. Taking into account the factors listed in (a) above, the ATO, the DTO or the instructor, as applicable, may also decide that the applicant already possesses the required level of proficiency and that no refresher training is necessary. In such a case, the certificate or other documental evidence referred to in (c) above should contain a respective statement including sufficient reasoning.

SECTION 2 – SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AEROPLANE CATEGORY

FCL.720.A Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or type ratings – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) 2020/2193

Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 (OSD), applicants for the issue of a class or type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of the relevant rating:

(a) Single-pilot aeroplanes

Applicants for the initial issue of privileges to operate a single-pilot aeroplane in multi-pilot operations, either when applying for the issue of a class or type rating or when extending the privileges of a class or type rating already held to multi-pilot operation, shall meet the requirements in point (b)(4) and, before starting the relevant training course, point (b)(5).

Additionally, for:

  1. Single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes
  2. Applicants for the issue of a first class or type rating on a single-pilot multi-engine aeroplane shall have completed at least 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes.

  3. Single-pilot high-performance non-complex aeroplanes
  4. Before starting flight training, applicants for the issue of a class or type rating for a single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high-performance aeroplane shall:

    1. have at least 200 hours of total flying experience, of which 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes; and
    2. comply with one of the following requirements:
      1. hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of a course for additional theoretical knowledge undertaken at an ATO; or
      2. have passed the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL); or
      3. hold, in addition to a licence issued in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL), an ATPL(A) or CPL(A)/IR with theoretical knowledge credit for ATPL(A), issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention.
  5. Single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes
  6. Applicants for the issue of a type rating for a complex single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high-performance aeroplane shall, in addition to meeting the requirements in point (2), comply with all of the following:

    1. they shall hold or have held a single- or multi-engine IR(A), as appropriate and as established in Subpart G;
    2. for the issue of the first type rating, they shall, before starting the type rating training course, meet the requirements in point (b)(5).

(b) Multi-pilot aeroplanes

Voir règlement.

AMC1 FCL.720.A(b)(2)(i) Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or type ratings – aeroplanes - ED Decision 2018/001/R

ADDITIONAL THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR A CLASS OR TYPE RATING FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE SINGLE-PILOT (SP) AEROPLANES

Voir règlement.

FCL.725.A Theoretical knowledge and flight instruction for the issue of class and type ratings – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) 2018/1974

Voir règlement.

FCL.730.A Specific requirements for pilots undertaking a zero flight time type rating (ZFTT) course – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

  1. A pilot undertaking instruction at a ZFTT course shall have completed, on a multi-pilot turbo-jet aeroplane certificated to the standards of CS-25 or equivalent airworthiness code or on a multi-pilot turbo-prop aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off mass of not less than 10 tonnes or a certificated passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers, at least:
    1. if an FFS qualified to level CG, C or interim C is used during the course, 1 500 hours flight time or 250 route sectors;
    2. if an FFS qualified to level DG or D is used during the course, 500 hours flight time or 100 route sectors.
  2. When a pilot is changing from a turbo-prop to a turbo-jet aeroplane or from a turbo-jet to a turbo-prop aeroplane, additional simulator training shall be required.

FCL.735.A Multi-crew cooperation training course – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Voir règlement.

FCL.740.A Revalidation of class and type ratings – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) 2020/359

  1. Revalidation of multi-engine class ratings and type ratings. For revalidation of multi-engine class ratings and type ratings, the applicant shall:
  2. Voir règlement.

  3. Revalidation of single-pilot single-engine class ratings..
    1. Single-engine piston aeroplane class ratings and TMG class ratings. For the revalidation of single-pilot single- engine piston aeroplane class ratings or TMG class ratings, the applicants shall:
      1. within the 3 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, pass a proficiency check in the relevant class in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part with an examiner; or
      2. within the 12 months preceding the expiry date of the rating, complete 12 hours of flight time in the relevant class, including:
        • 6 hours as PIC,
        • 12 take-offs and 12 landings, and
        • refresher training of at least 1 hour of total flight time with a flight instructor (FI) or a class rating instructor (CRI). Applicants shall be exempted from this refresher training if they have passed a class or type rating proficiency check, skill test or assessment of competence in any other class or type of aeroplane.

        AltMoC1 FCL 740.A (b) (1) (ii) – Revalidation of class and type ratings

        Training flight items should be based on the exercise items of the proficiency check as deemed relevant by the instructor and depending on the experience of the candidate. The briefing should include a discussion on threat-and-error management with special emphasis on decision-making when encountering adverse meteorological conditions, unintentional Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMCs) and navigation flight capabilities.

        Aircrew AltMOC FC N01 du 18/09/2015

    2. When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and a TMG rating, they may complete the requirements of (1) in either class or a combination thereof, and achieve revalidation of both ratings.
    3. Single-pilot single-engine turbo-prop aeroplanes. For revalidation of single-engine turbo-prop class ratings applicants shall pass a proficiency check on the relevant class in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part with an examiner, within the 3 months preceding the expiry date of the rating.
    4. When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane-land class rating and a single-engine piston aeroplane-sea class rating, they may complete the requirements of (1)(ii) in either class or a combination thereof, and achieve the fulfilment of these requirements for both ratings. At least 1 hour of required PIC time and 6 of the required 12 take-offs and landings shall be completed in each class.
    5. The proficiency check for the revalidation of a single-pilot single-engine aeroplane class rating may be combined with the proficiency check for the revalidation of a BIR, in accordance with point FCL.835(g)(8).
  4. Applicants who fail to achieve a pass in all sections of a proficiency check before the expiry date of a class or type rating shall not exercise the privileges of that rating until a pass in the proficiency check has been achieved.

AMC1 FCL.740.A(b)(1)(ii) Revalidation of class and type ratings - ED Decision 2020/005/R

CONTENT OF THE REFRESHER TRAINING

Training flight items should be based on the exercise items of the proficiency check, as deemed relevant by the instructor, and depending on the experience of the candidate. The briefing should include a discussion on TEM with special emphasis on decision-making when encountering adverse meteorological conditions or unintentional IMC, as well as on navigation flight capabilities.

GM1 FCL.740(b) Validity and renewal of class and type ratings - ED Decision 2021/002/R

RENEWAL OF CLASS AND TYPE RATINGS: REFRESHER TRAINING AT AN AOC HOLDER

It is recommended that an AOC holder approved for renewal of type ratings under Part-ORO may provide refresher training if the applicant is enrolled in the EBT programme; and if the rating has lapsed by no more than 1 year.

If the rating has lapsed by more than 1 year, it is recommended that the applicant consider to follow the training at an ATO and AMC1 FCL.740(b) applies.

FCL.745.A Advanced UPRT course – aeroplanes - Regulation (EU) 2018/1974

Note : UPRT = Upset Prevention and Recovery Training.

  1. The advanced UPRT course shall be completed at an ATO and shall comprise at least:
    1. 5 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction;
    2. preflight briefings and postflight debriefings; and
    3. 3 hours of dual flight instruction with a flight instructor for aeroplanes FI(A) qualified in accordance with point FCL.915(e) and consisting of advanced UPRT in an aeroplane qualified for the training task.
  2. Upon completion of the UPRT course, applicants shall be issued with a certificate of completion by the ATO.

AMC1 FCL.745.A Advanced UPRT course – aeroplanes - ED Decision 2019/005/R

COURSE OBJECTIVE

  1. The objective of the course is for the pilot under training:
    1. to understand how to cope with the physiological and psychological aspects of dynamic upsets in aeroplanes; and
    2. to develop the necessary competence and resilience to be able to apply appropriate recovery techniques during upsets.
  2. In order to meet the objective as specified in point (a), the course should:
    1. emphasise physiological and psychological effects of an upset and develop strategies to mitigate those effects;
    2. be delivered in a suitable training aircraft in order to expose trainees to conditions that cannot be replicated in an FSTD; and
    3. employ recovery techniques that are suitable for the aircraft used for training in order to support the training objectives. In order to minimise the risk associated with potential negative transfer of training, the recovery techniques used during the course should be compatible with techniques typically used for transport category aeroplanes.

THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

  1. Theoretical knowledge instruction supports the objectives of the course and should include the following:
    1. a review of basic aerodynamics typically applicable to aeroplane upsets in transport category aeroplanes, including case studies of incidents involving potential or actual upsets.
    2. aerodynamics relevant to the aeroplane and exercises used in the practical training, including differences to aerodynamics as referred to in point (1);
    3. possible physiological and psychological effects of an upset, including surprise and startle effect;
    4. strategies to develop resilience and mitigate startle effect; and
    5. memorising the appropriate procedures and techniques for upset recovery.

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION

  1. Flight instruction should include:
    1. exercises to demonstrate:
      1. the relationship between speed, attitude and AoA;
      2. the effect of g-load on aeroplane performance, including stall events at different attitudes and airspeeds;
      3. aerodynamic indications of a stall including buffeting, loss of control authority and inability to arrest a descent;
      4. the physiological effects of different g-loads between -1 and 2.5G; and
      5. surprise and the startle effect;
    2. training in techniques to recover from:
      1. nose high at various bank angles;
      2. nose low at various bank angles;
      3. spiral dives;
      4. stall events; and
      5. incipient spin; and
    3. training to develop resilience and to employ strategies to mitigate the startle effect.

COURSE COMPLETION

  1. The course is considered to have been satisfactorily completed if the trainee is able to successfully:
    1. apply strategies to mitigate psychological and physical effects;
    2. recognise upsets;
    3. apply correct recovery techniques from upset scenarios as specified in point (d)(2).

GM1 FCL.745.A Advanced UPRT course – aeroplanes - ED Decision 2019/005/R

UPSET RECOVERY TRAINING EXERCISES

GENERAL

  1. The objective of this GM is to provide instructors with further guidance on the conduct of the various upset recovery exercises, which requires instructor performance beyond that experienced in normal operations.
  2. Instructors should:
    1. ensure that the risk mitigation measures determined by the ATO are strictly adhered to;
    2. continuously assess the performance of the student to ensure that the training objectives of the upset recovery exercises are achieved;
    3. understand that all-attitude/on-aeroplane upset recovery exercises serve primarily as resilience-builder. In other words, the training serves mainly human-factor training objectives and not only flying skills training;
    4. understand the differences between all-attitude UPRT and aerobatics training;
    5. have knowledge and understanding of how:
      1. on-aeroplane and FSTD UPRT complement each other; and
      2. to ensure that negative transfer of training from small aeroplanes to heavier transport category aeroplanes is avoided. This may be achieved by observing UPRT in an FSTD, especially in a type-specific FFS; and
    6. have knowledge and understanding of the upset prevention theoretical knowledge and flight instruction elements taught during the CPL(A) and ATPL(A) training courses to ensure continuity and consistency in delivering UPRT.
    7. Note: Instructors should be aware that the safety and potential human factor implications of poor upset recovery instructional technique or misleading information are more significant than in any other areas of pilot training.

  3. In order to increase the applicant’s resilience related to the handling of aeroplane upsets, the advanced UPRT course needs to include the development of confidence and competence in recognising and recovering safely from upsets under the presence of the real human factors. Such confidence building is specifically addressed by:
    1. successfully overcoming natural stress response (startle and surprise); and
    2. performing critically important counter-intuitive actions.
    3. Advanced UPRT therefore considers pitch attitudes, bank angles, AOA/airspeeds, sideslip and g-loads, none of which are normally experienced during routine operations.

  4. Aeroplanes used in this course should be:
    1. appropriately certified and operated by the ATO in a manner that takes into account the effects of repeated training manoeuvres on airframe fatigue life; and
    2. provide sufficient safety margins to cater for student and instructor errors.
  5. This course complements UPRT in FSTDs by providing exposure to psycho-physiological conditions, which cannot be delivered by the motion systems of today’s qualified FSTDs. At completion of the course, the student should pilot to be able to:
    1. recognise and confirm the upset-situation;
    2. manage stress response;
    3. apply the correct recovery strategy timely and effectively;
    4. stay within the defined training envelope;
    5. stabilise the flight path after recovery; and
    6. become competent and confident in recovering from upsets.

SPECIFIC EXERCISES

  1. Exercise 1 — Nose HIGH recovery
  2. Exercise 2 — Nose LOW Recovery
  3. Exercise 3 — Recovery from spiral dive
  4. Exercise 4 — Stall Event Recovery
  5. Exercise 5 — Recovery from spin
  6. Assessment of student performance
  7. By collecting evidence from observable behaviours, the instructor will continuously assess whether the student meets the required competency standards under the given conditions.

SECTION 3 – SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HELICOPTER CATEGORY

FCL.720.H Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of type ratings – helicopters - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Voir règlementation

SECTION 4 – SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE POWERED-LIFT AIRCRAFT CATEGORY

FCL.720.PL Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of type ratings – powered-lift aircraft - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Voir règlementation

SECTION 5 – SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AIRSHIP CATEGORY

FCL.720.As Prerequisites for the issue of type ratings – airships - Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Voir règlementation