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SERA - Annexes


SECTION 3 General rules and collision avoidance

CHAPTER 2 Avoidance of collisions

SERA.3201 General - Regulation (EU) 923/2012

Nothing in this Regulation shall relieve the pilot-in-command of an aircraft from the responsibility of taking such action, including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS equipment, as will best avert collision.

GM1 SERA.3201 General - ED Decision 2013/013/R

VIGILANCE ON BOARD AN AIRCRAFT

Regardless of the type of flight or the class of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, it is important that vigilance for the purpose of detecting potential collisions be exercised on board an aircraft. This vigilance is important at all times including while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome.

SERA.3205 Proximity - Regulation (EU) 923/2012

An aircraft shall not be operated in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

SERA.3210 Right-of-way - Regulation (EU) 2020/469

  1. The aircraft that has the right-of-way shall maintain its heading and speed.
  2. An aircraft that is aware that the manoeuvrability of another aircraft is impaired shall give way to that aircraft.
  3. An aircraft that is obliged by the following rules to keep out of the way of another shall avoid passing over, under or in front of the other, unless it passes well clear and takes into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence
    1. Approaching head-on. When two aircraft are approaching head-on or approximately so and there is danger of collision, each shall alter its heading to the right.
    2. Converging. When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level, the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way, except as follows:
      1. power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, sailplanes and balloons;
      2. airships shall give way to sailplanes and balloons;
      3. sailplanes shall give way to balloons;
      4. power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other aircraft or objects.
    3. Overtaking. An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches another from the rear on a line forming an angle of less than 70 degrees with the plane of symmetry of the latter, i.e. is in such a position with reference to the other aircraft that at night it should be unable to see either of the aircraft’s left (port) or right (starboard) navigation lights. An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right, and no subsequent change in the relative positions of the two aircraft shall absolve the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear.
      1. Sailplanes overtaking. A sailplane overtaking another sailplane may alter its course to the right or to the left.
    4. Landing. An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground or water, shall give way to aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land.
      1. When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome or an operating site for the purpose of landing, aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level, but the latter shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is in the final stages of an approach to land, or to overtake that aircraft. Nevertheless, power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to sailplanes.
      2. Emergency landing. An aircraft that is aware that another is compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.
    5. Taking off. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall give way to aircraft taking off or about to take off.
  4. Surface movement of aircraft, persons and vehicles.
    1. In case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an aerodrome or equivalent part of an operating site, the following shall apply:
      1. when two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear;
      2. when two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way;
      3. an aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right-of-way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.
    2. At a controlled aerodrome an aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all runway-holding positions unless an explicit clearance to enter or cross the runway has been issued by the aerodrome control tower.
    3. An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all lighted stop bars and may proceed further in accordance with (2) when the lights are switched off.
    4. Movement of persons and vehicles at aerodromes:
      1. The movement of persons or vehicles, including towed aircraft, on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower as necessary to avoid hazard to them or to aircraft landing, taxiing or taking off.
      2. In conditions where low visibility procedures are in operation:
        1. persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall be restricted to the essential minimum and particular regard shall be given to the requirements to protect the critical and sensitive area(s) of radio navigation aids;
        2. subject to the provisions of point (iii), the method or methods to separate vehicles and taxiing aircraft shall be as specified by the air navigation service provider (‘ANSP’) and approved by the competent authority taking into account the aids available;
        3. when mixed ILS and MLS Category II or Category III precision instrument operations are taking place to the same runway continuously, the more restrictive ILS or MLS critical and sensitive areas shall be protected.
      3. Emergency vehicles proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress shall be afforded priority over all other surface movement traffic.
      4. Subject to the provisions in (iii), vehicles on the manoeuvring area shall be required to comply with the following rules:
        1. vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing, taking-off or taxiing;
        2. vehicles shall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft;
        3. vehicles shall give way to other vehicles in accordance with air traffic services unit instructions;
        4. notwithstanding the provisions of (A), (B) and (C), vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower.

GM1 SERA.3210(d)(3) Right-of-way - ED Decision 2020/007/R

UNSERVICEABLE STOP BARS — CONTINGENCY MEASURES

In situations where the lit stop bars cannot be turned off because of a technical problem, the following contingency measures may, inter alia, be considered:

  1. physically disconnecting the respective lit stop bar from its power supply;
  2. physically obscuring the lights of the lit stop bar;
  3. using a different route, until the malfunctioning system has been repaired.

In case of implementation of (a) or (b), a marshaller or a follow-me vehicle may need to be provided to lead the aircraft to cross the stop bar. Moreover, in case of implementation of (b), care should be exercised to ensure correct implementation of the measure to avoid misunderstandings by the flight crew.

In any case, the measures taken should not undermine the principle that a lit stop bar must not be crossed.

GM1 SERA.3210(d)(4)(ii)(B) Right-of-way - ED Decision 2020/007/R

CONTROL OF PERSONS AND VEHICLES AT AERODROMES

In prescribing the separation method(s) between vehicles and taxiing aircraft, the availability of lighting, markings, signals and signage should normally be taken into account.

FRA.3210 d) 4) ii) B)

Mise en oeuvre

Lorsque les procédures d’exploitation par faible visibilité sont appliquées, la séparation minimale entre les véhicules et les aéronefs qui circulent à la surface prescrite par le prestataire de services de la navigation aérienne est approuvée par le directeur de la sécurité de l’aviation civile.

SERA.3215 Lights to be displayed by aircraft - Regulation (EU) 2016/1185

  1. Except as provided by (e), at night all aircraft in flight shall display:
    1. anti-collision lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and
    2. except for balloons, navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer. Other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights.
  2. Except as provided by (e), at night:
    1. all aircraft moving on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer and other lights shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights;
    2. unless stationary and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the extremities of their structure, as far as practicable;
    3. all aircraft taxiing or being towed on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to attract attention to the aircraft; and
    4. all aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are running shall display lights which indicate that fact.
  3. Except as provided by (e), all aircraft in flight and fitted with anti-collision lights to meet the requirement of (a)(1) shall display such lights also during day.
  4. Except as provided by (e), all aircraft:
    1. taxiing or being towed on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with anti-collision lights, to meet the requirement of (b)(3); or
    2. on the movement area of an aerodrome and fitted with lights to meet the requirement of (b)(4);
    shall display such lights also during day.
  5. A pilot shall be permitted to switch off or reduce the intensity of any flashing lights fitted to meet the requirements of (a), (b), (c) and (d) if they do or are likely to:
    1. adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties; or
    2. subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle.

GM1 SERA.3215(a);(b) Lights to be displayed by aircraft - ED Decision 2013/013/R

GENERAL

Lights fitted for other purposes, such as landing lights and airframe floodlights, may be used in addition to the anti-collision lights to enhance aircraft conspicuity.

AMC1 SERA.3215(a)(1) Lights to be displayed by aircraft - ED Decision 2013/013/R

BALLOONS LIGHTS

The anti-collision light required for free manned balloons which are certified for VFR at night in accordance with CS 31HB/GB.65 Night lighting should be considered as acceptable means to comply with SERA.3215(a)(1).

GM1 SERA.3215(a)(1) Lights to be displayed by aircraft - ED Decision 2013/013/R

BALLOONS LIGHTS

The technical specifications that such anti-collision lights specified in AMC1 SERA 3215(a)(1) need to meet can be found in the special conditions ‘SC D-01 31HB_GB External and Internal Lights for Free Balloon Night Flight Issue 2’9.

SERA.3220 Simulated instrument flights - Regulation (EU) 923/2012

An aircraft shall not be flown under simulated instrument flight conditions unless:

  1. fully functioning dual controls are installed in the aircraft; and
  2. an additional qualified pilot (in this rule called a safety pilot) occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying under simulated instrument conditions. The safety pilot shall have adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in communication with the safety pilot shall occupy a position in the aircraft from which the observer’s field of vision adequately supplements that of the safety pilot.

GM1 SERA.3220(b) Simulated instrument flights - ED Decision 2013/013/R

SAFETY PILOT

For the purposes of this rule a safety pilot is a pilot who holds a licence which entitles him/her to act as pilot-in-command of the aircraft and is able and prepared to take control of the aircraft at any time during the flight. The safety pilot will maintain lookout, or a competent observer in case the safety pilot does not have full vision of each side of the aircraft, and avoid collisions on behalf of the person flying under simulated instrument conditions.

A control seat is a seat which affords the person sitting in it sufficient access to the flying controls so as to enable him/her to fly the aircraft unimpeded.

FRA.3230 b)

Mise en œuvre

Pour l'application du b) de la disposition SERA.3230, il n'est pas prescrit de période supplémentaire d'allumage des feux réglementaires des aéronefs à flot.

SERA.3225 Operation on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome - Regulation (EU) 923/2012

An aircraft operated on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall:

  1. observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision;
  2. conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation;
  3. except for balloons, make all turns to the left, when approaching for a landing and after taking off, unless otherwise indicated, or instructed by ATC;
  4. except for balloons, land and take off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or air traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable.

SERA.3230 Water operations - Regulation (EU) 923/2012

  1. When two aircraft or an aircraft and a vessel are approaching one another and there is a risk of collision, the aircraft shall proceed with careful regard to existing circumstances and conditions including the limitations of the respective craft.
    1. Converging. An aircraft which has another aircraft or a vessel on its right shall give way so as to keep well clear.
    2. Approaching head-on. An aircraft approaching another aircraft or a vessel head-on, or approximately so, shall alter its heading to the right to keep well clear.
    3. Overtaking. The aircraft or vessel which is being overtaken has the right of way, and the one overtaking shall alter its heading to keep well clear.
    4. Landing and taking off. Aircraft landing on or taking off from the water shall, in so far as practicable, keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation.
  2. Lights to be displayed by aircraft on the water. At night or during any other period prescribed by the competent authority, all aircraft on the water shall display lights as required by the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, unless it is impractical for them to do so, in which case they shall display lights as closely similar as possible in characteristics and position to those required by the International Regulations

GM1 SERA.3230 Water operations - ED Decision 2013/013/R

INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA

In addition to the provisions of SERA.3230, rules set forth in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, developed by the International Conference on Revision of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (London, 1972), may be applicable in certain cases.

GM1 SERA.3230(b) Water operations - ED Decision 2013/013/R

LIGHTS TO BE DISPLAYED BY AIRCRAFT ON THE WATER

The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea specify that the rules concerning lights shall be complied with from sunset to sunrise. Any lesser period between sunset and sunrise established in accordance with SERA.3230(b) cannot, therefore, be applied in areas where the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea apply, e.g. on the high seas.